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International Tiger Day
Of the original nine subspecies of tigers, three have become extinct in the last 80 years (Bali, Javan, Caspian); an average of one every 20 years. It has been predicted all tigers may become extinct in the wild within the next decade. Today, four of the remaining subspecies of tigers are considered endangered by the IUCN, while two of the subspecies are considered “critically” endangered. The total number of all the wild populations of the six remaining subspecies of tigers (Bengal, Indochinese, Malayan, Siberian, South China, and Sumatran) is estimated to be between 3,000 – 3,600 tigers.
WHY IS IT THIS ISSUE IMPORTANT TO US?
The tiger is not just a charismatic species or just another wild animal living in some far away forest.
The tiger is a unique animal which plays a pivotal role in the health and diversity of an ecosystem. It is a top predator which is at the apex of the food chain and keeps the population of wild ungulates in check, thereby maintaining the balance between prey herbivores and the vegetation upon which they feed. Therefore, the presence of tigers in the forest is an indicator of the well-being of the ecosystem. The extinction of this top predator is an indication that its ecosystem is not sufficiently protected, and neither would it exist for long thereafter.
If the tigers go extinct, the entire system would collapse.
What is decreasing the number of tigers?
Rising sea levels, a global warming effect, threatens the forests the tiger calls home. Without these coastal forests, the animal’s camouflage ceases to provide protection, and they are left vulnerable. While the cat is highly adaptable, changes caused by global warming are rapidly outpacing the feline’s ability to adapt. Poaching, habitat loss, prey depletion and fragmentation have reduced the global population of tigers from over 100,000 in the 1900s, to less than 4,000 in the 1970s.
Extinct Caspian Sub-species of tiger -
What is India's connection in tiger crisis?
India is home to 70 percent of tigers in the world. In 2006, there were 1,411 tigers which increased to 1,706 in 2010 and 2,226 in 2014. 2018 Tiger census is expected to show improved results and higher Tiger count.
WHAT is India DOING to protect tigers?
Project Tiger is a tiger conservation programme launched in 1973 by the Government of India during Prime Minister Indira Gandhi's tenure. The project aims at ensuring a viable population of Bengal tigers in their natural habitats, protecting them from extinction, and preserving areas of biological importance as a natural heritage forever represented as close as possible the diversity of ecosystems across the tiger's distribution in the country. Project Tiger has seen significant success in recovery of the habitat and increase in the population of the tigers in the reserve areas, from a scanty 268 in 9 reserves in 1972 to above 1000 in 28 reserves in 2006 to 2000+ tigers in 2016.
TIGER RESERVES IN INDIA
There are 50 tiger reserves in India which are governed by Project Tiger which is administrated by the National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA). India is home to 70 percent of tigers in the world. In 2006, there were 1,411 tigers which increased to 1,706 in 2010 and 2,226 in 2014. The total number of wild tigers has risen to 3,890 in 2016 according to World Wildlife Fund and Global Tiger Forum.
WHICH IS THE FIRST TIGER RESERVE IN INDIA?
In 1973, the project was launched in the Corbett National Park of Uttarakhand.
Tiger Reserves - state wise -
Kaziranga Tiger Reserve
Manas Tiger Reserve
Nameri Tiger Reserve
Orang Tiger Reserve
Kamlang Wildlife Sanctuary
Namdapha Tiger Reserve
- Pakhui Tiger Reserve
Valmiki Tiger Reserve
Achanakmar Tiger Reserve
Indravati Tiger Reserves
Udanti & Sitanadi Tiger Reserve
Palamau Tiger Reserve
Bandipur Tiger Reserve
Kali Tiger Reserve
Nagarhole Tiger Reserve
Bhadra Tiger Reserve
Anshi Dandeli Tiger Reserve
Biligiri Rangaswamy Temple Wildlife Sanctuary
Periyar Tiger Reserve
Parambikulam Tiger Reserve
Bandhavgarh Tiger Reserve
Bori-Satpura Tiger Reserve
Kanha Tiger Reserve
Panna Tiger Reserve
Pench Tiger Reserve
Sanjay-Dubri Tiger Reserve
Manas Tiger Reserve is the only tiger reserve which is also a World Heritage Site.
Melghat Tiger Reserve
Tadoba-Andhari Tiger Reserve
Shahayadri Tiger reserve
Nagzira-Navegaon Tiger Reserve
Bor Tiger Reserve
Dampa Tiger Reserve
Satkosia Tiger Reserve
Simlipal Tiger Reserve
Ranthambhore Tiger Reserve
Sariska Tiger Reserve
Mukandra Hills Tiger Reserve
Kalakkad Mundanthurai Tiger Reserve
Anamalai Tiger Reserve
Mudumalai Tiger Reserve
Sathyamangalam Tiger Reserve
Kawal Tiger Reserve
Nagarjunsagar-Srisailam Tiger Reserve
Nagarjunsagar-Srisailam Tiger Reserve - Nagarjunsagar-Srisailam Tiger Reserve is the largest tiger reserve in India. The reserve spreads over five districts.
Dudhwa Tiger Reserve
Pilibhit Tiger Reserve
Corbett Tiger Reserve
Rajaji Tiger reserve
The Wildlife Institute of India (WII) in its report declared Corbett as highest tiger population national park in India.
Buxa Tiger Reserve
Sunderbans Tiger Reserve
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