All about Tigers... in India

   

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International Tiger Day

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Of the original nine subspecies of tigers, three have become extinct in the last 80 years (Bali, Javan, Caspian); an average of one every 20 years. It has been predicted all tigers may become extinct in the wild within the next decade. Today, four of the remaining subspecies of tigers are considered endangered by the IUCN, while two of the subspecies are considered “critically” endangered. The total number of all the wild populations of the six remaining subspecies of tigers (Bengal, Indochinese, Malayan, Siberian, South China, and Sumatran) is estimated to be between 3,000 – 3,600 tigers.

WHY IS IT THIS ISSUE IMPORTANT TO US?

The tiger is not just a charismatic species or just another wild animal living in some far away forest.

The tiger is a unique animal which plays a pivotal role in the health and diversity of an ecosystem. It is a top predator which is at the apex of the food chain and keeps the population of wild ungulates in check, thereby maintaining the balance between prey herbivores and the vegetation upon which they feed. Therefore, the presence of tigers in the forest is an indicator of the well-being of the ecosystem. The extinction of this top predator is an indication that its ecosystem is not sufficiently protected, and neither would it exist for long thereafter.

If the tigers go extinct, the entire system would collapse.

What is decreasing the number of tigers?

Rising sea levels, a global warming effect, threatens the forests the tiger calls home. Without these coastal forests, the animal’s camouflage ceases to provide protection, and they are left vulnerable. While the cat is highly adaptable, changes caused by global warming are rapidly outpacing the feline’s ability to adapt. Poaching, habitat loss, prey depletion and fragmentation have reduced the global population of tigers from over 100,000 in the 1900s, to less than 4,000 in the 1970s.

Extinct Caspian Sub-species of tiger -

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What is India's connection in tiger crisis?

India is home to 70 percent of tigers in the world. In 2006, there were 1,411 tigers which increased to 1,706 in 2010 and 2,226 in 2014. 2018 Tiger census is expected to show improved results and higher Tiger count.

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WHAT is India DOING to protect tigers?

Project Tiger is a tiger conservation programme launched in 1973 by the Government of India during Prime Minister Indira Gandhi's tenure. The project aims at ensuring a viable population of Bengal tigers in their natural habitats, protecting them from extinction, and preserving areas of biological importance as a natural heritage forever represented as close as possible the diversity of ecosystems across the tiger's distribution in the country. Project Tiger has seen significant success in recovery of the habitat and increase in the population of the tigers in the reserve areas, from a scanty 268 in 9 reserves in 1972 to above 1000 in 28 reserves in 2006 to 2000+ tigers in 2016.

TIGER RESERVES IN INDIA

There are 50 tiger reserves in India which are governed by Project Tiger which is administrated by the National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA). India is home to 70 percent of tigers in the world. In 2006, there were 1,411 tigers which increased to 1,706 in 2010 and 2,226 in 2014. The total number of wild tigers has risen to 3,890 in 2016 according to World Wildlife Fund and Global Tiger Forum.

WHICH IS THE FIRST TIGER RESERVE IN INDIA?

In 1973, the project was launched in the Corbett National Park of Uttarakhand.

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Tiger Reserves - state wise -

Assam

  • Kaziranga Tiger Reserve

  • Manas Tiger Reserve

  • Nameri Tiger Reserve

  • Orang Tiger Reserve

Arunachal Pradesh

  • Kamlang Wildlife Sanctuary

  • Namdapha Tiger Reserve

  • Pakhui Tiger Reserve

Bihar

  • Valmiki Tiger Reserve

Chhattisgarh

  • Achanakmar Tiger Reserve

  • Indravati Tiger Reserves

  • Udanti & Sitanadi Tiger Reserve

Jharkhand

  • Palamau Tiger Reserve

Karnataka 

  • Bandipur Tiger Reserve

  • Kali Tiger Reserve

  • Nagarhole Tiger Reserve

  • Bhadra Tiger Reserve

  • Anshi Dandeli Tiger Reserve

  • Biligiri Rangaswamy Temple Wildlife Sanctuary

Kerala

  • Periyar Tiger Reserve

  • Parambikulam Tiger Reserve

Madhya Pradesh

  • Bandhavgarh Tiger Reserve

  • Bori-Satpura Tiger Reserve

  • Kanha Tiger Reserve

  • Panna Tiger Reserve

  • Pench Tiger Reserve

  • Sanjay-Dubri Tiger Reserve

Manas Tiger Reserve is the only tiger reserve which is also a World Heritage Site.

Maharashtra  

  • Melghat Tiger Reserve

  • Tadoba-Andhari Tiger Reserve

  • Shahayadri Tiger reserve

  • Nagzira-Navegaon Tiger Reserve

  • Bor Tiger Reserve

Mizoram

  • Dampa Tiger Reserve

Odisha 

  • Satkosia Tiger Reserve

  • Simlipal Tiger Reserve

Rajasthan

  • Ranthambhore Tiger Reserve

  • Sariska Tiger Reserve

  • Mukandra Hills Tiger Reserve

Tamil Nadu

  • Kalakkad Mundanthurai Tiger Reserve

  • Anamalai Tiger Reserve

  • Mudumalai Tiger Reserve

  • Sathyamangalam Tiger Reserve

Telangana

  • Kawal Tiger Reserve

  • Nagarjunsagar-Srisailam Tiger Reserve

Andhra Pradesh

  • Nagarjunsagar-Srisailam Tiger Reserve - Nagarjunsagar-Srisailam Tiger Reserve is the largest tiger reserve in India. The reserve spreads over five districts.

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Uttar Pradesh

  • Dudhwa Tiger Reserve

  • Pilibhit Tiger Reserve

Uttarakhand

  • Corbett Tiger Reserve

  • Rajaji Tiger reserve

The Wildlife Institute of India (WII) in its report declared Corbett as highest tiger population national park in India.

West Bengal

  • Buxa Tiger Reserve

  • Sunderbans Tiger Reserve

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Also Read:

GK Topic for Bank and Other Exams-List of National Parks in India

 

Read 162 times Last modified on Monday, 03 September 2018 11:38
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